Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Scala implementation of the Glicko-2 system

I did not found a Scala realization of the Glicko-2 system as a library in a repository, so I did a new one and publish it to maven. Feel free to use it:





libraryDependencies += "com.github.andriykuba" % "scala-glicko2" % "1.0.0" 


The original paper has an issue with precision:

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

play-handlebars was published

I published play-handlebars module into the sonatype repository. It could be freely included into the project now. Maven:
libraryDependencies += "com.github.andriykuba" % "play-handlebars" % "2.5.1" 

Monday, September 26, 2016

Handlebars module for Play Framework

I wrap up all my "handlebars around" code in the module play-handlebars. You can use it as easy as
public class HomeController extends Controller { 

    private HandlebarsApi handlebarsApi;

    public Result index() {
        // Data. 
        final Map data = new HashMap<>();
        data.put("title", "Page Title");
        data.put("header", "Header");
        data.put("main", ImmutableMap.of("article", "Main Article"));
        data.put("footer", "Footer");

        // Fill it with the data.
        final Content page = handlebarsApi.html("page", data, Context.current().lang().code());

        // Return the page to the client. 
        return ok(page);
class HomeController @Inject() (val handlebarsApi: HandlebarsApi)extends Controller with HandlebarsSupport{
  def index = Action { implicit request =>{
    val jsonData = 
      Json.obj("users" -> Json.arr(
          "name" -> "Jhon",
          "age" -> 4,
          "role" -> "Worker"
          "name" -> "Duck",
          "age" -> 6,
          "role" -> "Administrator"
    val page = render("page", jsonData)

Monday, May 9, 2016

Reflection loading of reverse routings

In Twirl reverse routing is as easy as the inline Scala operator - @controllers.routes.HomeController.loginSubmit. The same for the Java or Scala code. Just the routes package need to be added before the controller class name.

I implement the reves routing helper in my handlebars templates with the help of reflection.

It's no need even to add the rotes package

<form action="{{route "controllers.HomeController.loginSubmit"}}" method="POST>
{{route "controllers.HomeController.myAction()"}}
{{route "controllers.HomeController.myActionName(\"name\")"}}
{{route "controllers.HomeController.myActionAge(33)"}}
The core method of realization is the reflection of the correspond routes class:
  1. Get the class loader.
  2. Load the auto generated class routes.
  3. Get the reverse router object of the controller (it's in a static field of the routes class).
  4. Get the action of the reverse controller (do not forget about method parameters).
  5. Get the URL of the action.


private static String reverseUrl(
    final String controllerPackage,
    final String controllerClass,
    final String methodName,
    final RouteMethodArguments methodArguments) throws Exception {

  // Get the play class loader.
  final ClassLoader classLoader = Play.classloader(Play.current());

  // Load the auto generated class "routes".
  final Class routerClass = classLoader.loadClass(controllerPackage + ".routes");

  // Get the reverse router object of the controller.
  final Field declaredField = routerClass.getDeclaredField(controllerClass);
  // It's static field.
  final Object object = declaredField.get(null);
  final Class type = declaredField.getType();

  // Get the action of the reverse controller.
  final Method routerMethod = type.getMethod(methodName, methodArguments.types);
  final Call invoke = (Call) routerMethod.invoke(object, methodArguments.values);

  // Get the URL of the action.
  final String actionUrl = invoke.url();

  return actionUrl;
There are also some trivial code for the parsing helper parameter and for the caching. For now, I support only the String and Integer parameters for the actions. The cashe system is the guava cache.

One more thing - the RouteMethodArguments class that represents the arguments of the action

private static class RouteMethodArguments {
  final Class<?>[] types;
  final Object[] values;

  RouteMethodArguments(Class<?>[] types, Object[] values) {
    this.types = types;
    this.values = values;

Tuesday, April 26, 2016


I put my handlebars project in to the sub-project and stucked with the problem of reverse routing.

I used it in the assets helper

public static CharSequence asset(final String url) throws Exception{
 return controllers.routes.Assets.versioned(new controllers.Assets.Asset(url)).toString();
controllers.routes package was missing, because it generates in the process of the root project generation, and root project depends on the handlebars sub projects.

For sure I was not the first who faced with this problem. There is a long story issue. And there is a documentation as well. So if you met this problem then aggregateReverseRoutes setting would help you. The reason for this post is that it somewhat hard to recognize that "Aggregating reverse routers" is exactly about this problem, I saw similar questions on the StackOverflow.

My project definition section of the build.sbt in the root project

lazy val handlebars = (project in file("modules/handlebars"))
     aggregateReverseRoutes := Seq(root)

lazy val root: Project = (project in file("."))
Two thing here you need to pay attention.

First, aggregateReverseRoutes := Seq(root) says that handlebars need reverse routing from the root project.

Second, lazy val root: Project implicit variable type must be used because of recursion.

Thursday, March 24, 2016

Handlebars. Module

Handlebars engine is a tread-safe, so I can initialize it only once and then compile templates using the single instance (with a cache system). So I moved all the handlebars code into the module. There were a few changes: configuration has been extracted to the handlebars.conf, handlebars cache has been used, MessagesApi now injecting into the helpers, so they are not static, and result type of the handlebars compilation is a play.twirl.api.Content.

Now I can easely inject HandlebarsApi in any component:

private HandlebarsApi handlebarsApi;

And compile the template just with one line

Content page = handlebarsApi.html("page", data);


First of all, I extracted the configuration. I like the include statement, so I easily created the handlebars settings.


# configure Handlebars API
    include "handlebars.conf"

handlebars.conf in the same directory as the application.conf

directory: "/templates"
extension: ".hbs"

In the code I can read handlebars properties as easy as



The creation of module in Play is simple.

Create a class. I used @Singleton because I want to initialize handlebars only ones and utilize the cache system.

package handlebars;

public class HandlebarsApi {

Extend the play.api.inject.Module class; bind your class.

package handlebars;

import play.api.Configuration;
import play.api.Environment;
import play.api.inject.Binding;
import scala.collection.Seq;

public class Module extends play.api.inject.Module {

  public Seq<Binding<?>> bindings(final Environment environment, final Configuration configuration) {
    return seq(bind(HandlebarsApi.class).toSelf());


The last step - enable the module in the application.conf

# Bind Handlebars API
play.modules.enabled += "handlebars.Module"


Handlebars has a good cache system. There is no need to build your own. I selected the Guava cache.

Add dependency to the build.sbt

libraryDependencies += "com.github.jknack" % "handlebars-guava-cache" % "4.0.4"

Initialize handlebars with the cache


import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;



// Initialize the cache. Could be builded from configuration as well
// For example: CacheBuilder.from(config.getString("hbs.cache")).build()
final Cache cache = CacheBuilder.newBuilder()
    .expireAfterWrite(10, TimeUnit.MINUTES)

// Initialize the engine with the cache
handlebars = new Handlebars(loader)
    .with(new GuavaTemplateCache(cache));



I use MessagesApi in the handlebars helper. Helpers are registering only once a time, fortunately MessagesApi is a singleton, so I put it in to the Helper's constructor.

Part of the Helpers class.

public final class Helpers {

  final MessagesApi messagesApi;

  public Helpers(final MessagesApi messagesApi){
    this.messagesApi = messagesApi;


  public CharSequence message(final String key, final Options options) {
    // Get the current language.
    final Lang lang = Context.current().lang();
    // Retrieve the message, internally formatted by MessageFormat.
    return messagesApi.get(lang, key, options.params);


Initialization of the Handlebars with the Helpers class.


public HandlebarsApi(... final MessagesApi messagesApi) {
  // Add helpers. MessagesApi is a singleton so we can use it in the helpers.
  Helpers helpers = new Helpers(messagesApi);




Trivial result of the template processing in the Play is the object of play.twirl.api.Content type. So I created a simple implementation of this class for the HTML template.

HTML Content wrapper:

package handlebars;

import play.twirl.api.Content;

class HtmlContent implements Content {

  private String body;
  HtmlContent(final String body){
    this.body = body;
  public String body() {
    return body;

  public String contentType() {
    return "text/html";


Wrapping the handlebars result:

public String render(final String templateName, final Object data) throws Exception {
  return handlebars

public Content html(final String templateName, final Object data) throws Exception {
  return new HtmlContent(render(templateName, data));

Mocking the Http.Context

In the process of testing templates I spend a little time to beat the nasty error
java.lang.RuntimeException: There is no HTTP Context available from here.
So do not forget to mockup the Http.Context. It's easy to do.

Here is an example from the project:

// Initialize application
Application application = new GuiceApplicationBuilder().build();

// Setup an HTTP Context
Http.Context context = mock(Http.Context.class);

// Setup the language and messages
Lang langRequest = Lang.forCode(requestLang);
Lang langSession = Lang.forCode(sessionLang);
MessagesApi messagesApi = application.injector().instanceOf(MessagesApi.class);
Messages messages = new Messages(langRequest, messagesApi);

// Train the Context

// Get the handlebars API
HandlebarsApi handlebarsApi = application.injector().instanceOf(HandlebarsApi.class);

Project on the Github

You can find this simple project with the Handlebars module on the github:

Sunday, March 13, 2016

Handlebars. i18n to @Message

The Handlebars internationalization helper {{i18n}} is not very good choice for the Play. It uses different name convention for the message files, it hard to use different language in different requests. The {{i18n}} uses the local attribute to detect the language, by default it uses default local that defines by the Locale.getDefault(). It's a little bit different from the Play philosophy where you can change the language in every request, even only for one request with the help of the setTransientLang().

So I created the {{message}} helper that does the same work as the @Message in Twirl. It takes just a few strings of code. Actually, there are only two difference from the {{assert}} helper, described in the previous post. First - I need to detect the language on an every request, so I can not use the static helper. Second - messages could have arguments, so I need to use Options parameter in the helper method. And a little bit sugar - the MessageFormat library, just like in the original @Message.

Changes in the Helper class

import java.text.MessageFormat;
import com.github.jknack.handlebars.Options;
import play.i18n.Messages;


private final Messages messages;


* Creates Helpers with the given message pack.
* @param messages
*          The Play message pack.
public Helpers(final Messages messages) {
  this.messages = messages;


* Do the same as "@Message(key)" in Twirl. It use MessageFormat for the
* formatting as well as "@Message(key)".
* @param key
*          message key in the messages.** files.
* @return message
public CharSequence message(final String key, Options options){
  String message =;
  String messageFormatted = MessageFormat.format(message, options.params);
  return messageFormatted;

Cahnges in the Handlebars initialization

import play.i18n.Messages;
import play.i18n.MessagesApi;


private MessagesApi messagesApi;


Messages messages = new Messages(ctx().lang(), messagesApi);
Helpers helpers = new Helpers(messages);



{{message "page.header.sub" "name"}}


page.header.sub=Page Sub Header {0}
I used the new Messages(ctx().lang(), messagesApi) opposite to the ctx().messages() because I want full support of the ctx().changeLang() and the ctx().setTransientLang().

The ctx().lang() returns the current language, it is the language that was set by the ctx().changeLang() or the ctx().setTransientLang() or was taken from the PLAY_LANG cookie or taken from the Accept-Language header or taken from the default locale of the server.

The ctx().messages() returns a messages pack for the language of the current request. It is the language that was taken from the PLAY_LANG cookie or taken from the Accept-Language header or taken from the default locale of the server.

The ctx().changeLang() change the context lang field and set the PLAY_LANG cookie for the current response. So the ctx().messages() will return the message pack of the new language only in the next request. It is a tiny difference but I spend some time to catch it.